KN190 Cruise Report

KN190 Cruise Report

Vibracoring on the New Jersey Shelf: Investigating the Stratigraphic Response to ~50,000 Years of Eustasy

 

(A PDF version of this document is also available)

 

Ship: R/V Knorr; Dates: 31 July – 13 August, 2007; Ports: Woods Hole to Woods Hole

 

Science Party:

Dr. John Goff, Chief Scientist, University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG); Dr. James Austin, Co-Chief Scientist, (UTIG); Dr. Beth Christensen, Adelphi University (AU) (and visiting scientist at UTIG); Dr. Ron Steel, University of Texas Department of Geological Sciences (UTDGS); Dr. Brandon Dugan, Rice University (RU); Mr. Stanley Stackhouse, Student, UTDGS; Mr. Manasij Santra, Student, UTDGS; Ms. Amanda Uster, Student, AU; Mr. Darren Daly, Student, AU; Ms. Alison Jones, MATE (Marine Advanced Technology Education) Intern, San Jose State Univ.; Ms. Monica Price, MATE Intern, Coastal Carolina University; Ms. Susan Holt, secondary school teacher, Phoenix; Ms. Dana Brown, Student, Georgia State University; Mr. Hugh Daigle, Student, RU; Mr. Steve Sullivan, Sea Surveyor, Inc. (SSI); Mr. Shawn Emard, SSI; Mr. Tom Hamel, SSI; Mr. Robin Lewis, SSI

 

Scientific Objectives

      The primary objective of the KN190 cruise was to sample shallow stratigraphic targets on the New Jersey middle and outer continental shelf (Fig. 1).  This part of the east coast margin has been the focus of a number of high-resolution geophysical surveys and sampling efforts over the past two decades, funded principally by the Office of Naval Research (ONR).  These data

 

Figure 1.  Location map of target areas for KN190 sampling efforts on the New Jersey shelf.  Bathymetric contours in meters.  Solid black outline indicates prior multibeam bathymetric coverage.  Red lines indicate cruise tracks.

 

 

combine to form a detailed picture of the shallow stratigraphy related to the last ~50,000 years of eustacy on this shelf.  Samples collected during KN190 and subsequent analyses will provide additional geologic ground truth as to the timing, depositional environments, and physical properties of the imaged strata.  The principal stratigraphic targets are illustrated on one of the central dip lines through the survey area (Fig. 2).  These include: (1) a regional reflector, “R”, formed  about 40,000 years ago; (2) two sequences of sediment wedges on the outer shelf, identified as the “outer shelf wedge” and “shelf edge wedge” (separated by the prominent  reflector “W”, see Fig. 2), which were likely deposited during sea level fall prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM); (3) channels formed by fluvial downcutting during the LGM, and later filled with an estuarine sequence during Holocene sea level rise; (4) a ravinement surface, ”T”, created by shoreface erosion during transgression, which is associated with a lag deposit of coarse-grained sediment; and (5) the surficial sand sheet veneering the seafloor, formed during the Holocene into sand ridges up to 10 m thick.  Key references supporting this work include: Duncan (2001), Duncan et al. (2000), Goff et al., (1999; 2004; 2005), Gulick et al. (2005), Nordfjord (2005), Nordfjord et al. (2005; 2006).

 

 

Figure 2.  CHIRP seismic dip profile crossing the New Jersey outer shelf, illustrating primary stratigraphic components that were targets of sampling during KN190.  Location shown in Figure 1.

 

Background

      The New Jersey outer shelf is a historically challenging environment for coring, as a result primarily of the widespread presence of either stiff clays or unconsolidated, medium-to-coarse grained sands.  Prior attempts to penetrate these lithologies with a variety of tools have not had much success.  For example, in 1999 the French research vessel Marion Dufresne attempted to utilize a giant piston core in this region, succeeding primarily in bending core barrels after generally <10 m of penetration.  Previous attempts at vibracoring have yielded at most ~5-m cores, and typically much less.  In addition, the intermediate water depths (~60-90 m) present a fundamental technical challenge for larger-scale, rotary coring tools that might have greater success in these lithologies: too deep for jack-up rigs, yet too shallow for a drilling rig like the JOIDES Resolution to operate using dynamic positioning. 

 

      Of all the sampling options for the New Jersey shelf, the most promising appeared to be the AHC-800 (Active Heave Compensation to 800 m) drilling system, which was developed and is operated by the DOSECC (Drilling, Observation and Sampling of the Earths Continental Crust) consortium.  The AHC-800 is a modified version of DOSECC’s lake-drilling system, which generally operates off moored barges.  The AHC-800 system was developed with ONR funds, and for its first deployment was used for the ONR-sponsored Geoclutter project on the New Jersey shelf in October 2001.  Austin was the PI for that cruise, and John Goff was a participant.  Because the AHC-800 was still in development at that time, a large part of the 2001 cruise was spent overcoming technical issues, including working with a temperamental dynamic positioning system aboard Knorr and fine-tuning the complex heave compensation software driving the drilling platform.  We were also beset by severe weather conditions owing to the lateness of the season.  Nevertheless, we had success coring to ~13 m depth below the seafloor at one site, and our anticipation was that a follow-up cruise with the AHC-800 would yield excellent results.  That cruise was finally to become a reality on KN190, after funds were raised from several sources, including ONR (who provided the ship time), industry (Norsk-Hydro and ExxonMobil), and with Jackson School of Geosciences matching support.  Unfortunately, DOSECC pulled out of the contract just a few months prior to the cruise.  (Their reason was that the person who developed the system, and who is the only one who can run it effectively, decided that he was overcommitted and could not give the AHC-800 the pre-cruise preparation that it required.)

 

      After consulting with our sponsors and collaborators, we decided to press on with the cruise using a commercial vibracoring system.  This option was attractive for two reasons: (1) we would be able to attempt to core in many more locations (perhaps 10 times as many) than would have been possible with the AHC-800, and (2) with our vast collection of chirp seismic data, we could pinpoint erosional windows that that would allow us to sample most of our target strata with shorter cores, avoiding in most locations the difficult-to-recover Holocene sand layer.  We  did not feel that waiting another year was a viable option, given both personnel commitments and difficulties in scheduling the Knorr (which is the only UNOLS vessel from which the AHC-800 could operate; an improved DP system had been installed following the 2001 AHC-800 cruise) for an optimal weather window.  To try to maximize our recovery, we decided to operate with the most powerful vibracore available: an Alpine pneumatic system supplied by Sea Surveyor, Inc. (SSI) (Figure 3a).  We selected SSI following a competitive bid process.  Using such a system was in itself a significant challenge, because they are typically operated only in shallower water.  However, along with the SSI contractors, we felt that the water pressure issues could be overcome by operating with a larger air compressor and stronger hoses. 

 

Operations

 

Vibracoring

      Unfortunately, operation of the vibracorer did not go as expected.  We encountered two obstacles that made it largely impossible to carry out our planned scientific mission: (1) recovering the vibracorer air hoses (armored to withstand hydrostatic pressures to be expected at water depths of >100 m) was a far more taxing manpower task than originally anticipated, preventing us from operating in water depths more than ~80 m and on a 24-hr a day schedule, and (2) despite getting what appeared to be sufficient air pressure to the seafloor, the vibrating mechanism failed to operate effectively in water depths more than ~50 m. 

 

      In SSI’s previous vibracoring experience, air hoses could readily be deployed and brought back on board with a few crew, particularly since, being filled with air, they tended to float to the surface as the vibracorer was hauled back to the ship.  However, with the reinforced air hoses purchased for this job, they were considerably heavier and did not readily float to the surface.  In addition, after a few deployments, the air hoses became heavier still as water infiltrated between inner and outer liners, outside the metal armoring.  Hauling in the air hoses required more personnel than we had budgeted for a single 12-hour shift, and eventually became too arduous for the outer continental shelf water depths that we envisioned.  To deal with the manpower issue, after 6 days of operation we went to a single 12-hour shift for coring operations.  This worked well, as we were able to be very efficient and productive during that time.  On average, an entire vibracoring operation took ~1.5 hr.

 

 

Figure 3.  Instrument deployment: (a) vibracorer and (b) gravity corer.

 

      The most serious issue was the generally poor performance of the vibracorer in water depths >50 m; the reason is still a mystery to us.  As evidenced by the air coming out of the return air hoses at these depths, we appeared to be getting sufficient air through the vibracoring mechanism.  Nonetheless, the head simply wasn’t vibrating with sufficient energy for significant penetration.  This was most in evidence to those handling the air hoses.  As the vibracorer was lowered to the seafloor, it would always be vibrating during the descent, and the vibration could at first be felt through the hoses on deck.  However, below ~50 m water depth, such hose vibration became much more attenuated, to the point where it could not be felt by handlers.  That the vibracore was indeed vibrating to some degree while on the seafloor at these depths was evident by the fact that the nose cone became highly polished (at least when deployed at sandier sites), but negligible penetration of the core barrel was usually achieved.  Occasionally, we did obtain vibracores up to ~2 m long in softer sediments.  Sample locations in deeper water are listed in the Appendix and are also shown in Figure 4.

 

 

Figure 4. Location map for all cores collected and attempted on the outer New Jersey shelf.  Bathymetric map (contours in meters; artificial illumination from the North) is a combination of available multibeam and archival data.  CHIRP seismic reflection track lines from ONR-funded work (2001-02; 2006) are shown. 

 

      To see if vibracorer performance improved in shallower depths, we selected a number of coring sites within the Barnegat Corridor (Fig. 1), in ~25-35 m of water, where we also had substantial bathymetric, CHIRP seismic and grab sample data (funded by Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc.).  However, not having anticipated coring in this region, we only had illustrations of Barnegat Corridor profiles with us, rather than the digital CHIRP seismic data for that area, so navigation was not as precise as would normally have been the case.  These data were first published in Duncan’s (2001) thesis, and are now the topic of a paper by Goff and Duncan on sand ridges recently submitted to Sedimentology.  Our first Barnegat Corridor core, through a sand ridge, was > 4.5 m long; subsequent coring in this area proved that the vibracorer was more successful in the shallower water depths.  We ultimately spent two full 12-hour shifts coring in the Barnegat Corridor, targeting a second sand ridge, two channels and the mid-shelf sediment wedge.  One core through a channel fill included a core nearly 6-m long, our best recovery of the cruise.  The shallower water cores are listed in the Appendix and displayed in Figure 5.

 

 

Figure 5. Location map for vibracores collected within the Barnegat Corridor.  Bathymetric map (contours in meters, artificial illumination from the North) is from available multibeam data.  CHIRP seismic reflection track lines from JOI, Inc.-funded work are shown.

 

Gravity Coring

      Our difficulties with operating the vibracorer on the outer shelf prompted us to try utilizing a gravity corer provided by SSI as a contingency tool to obtain more samples in our primary middle-outer continental shelf working area (Fig. 1).  The gravity corer (Fig. 3b) was 1 m long and weighted on its fins with 200 lb of lead.  Deployment was very simple and quick, and could be accomplished during weather conditions that otherwise precluded operating the vibracorer.  More than 100 gravity core casts were conducted.  When successful, the gravity corer penetrated the surface mixed layer to obtain a plug of stiff clay in the nose cone, which can be assumed to represent undisturbed, in situ sediment samples of the tops of the outer shelf and shelf edge wedges.  In general, we tried to make three attempts at sampling each site chosen, unless it was clear that the seafloor was sandy and unreceptive to the gravity core.  Additional sites were chosen to try to maximize sampling of the wedges within erosional windows.  Where cores were unsuccessful, we were often able to obtain either a scraping of clay/mud from the outer barrel, or shelly/sandy material caught in the core catcher.  We bagged all samples we deemed significant enough to keep.  All gravity core casts are listed in the Appendix, and locations are shown in Figure 4.

 

Core Processing and Logging

      Cores from successful vibracorer attempts were cut, where appropriate, into 1.5 m-long sections.  Each section was logged in the Multi-Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) (Fig. 6a) for acoustic velocity (230 kHz), gamma-ray density, and magnetic susceptibility.  Cores were then stored in a refrigerated van for post-cruise transport to the Core Repository at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory for preliminary processing (expected in September 2007).  This will include splitting, digital photography, and visual geologic description.  Several core sections were split onboard for preliminary examination and for educational purposes (Fig. 6b).  These cores were photographed and graphically described, and later stored in D-tubes in the refrigerated van and transported with the unsplit cores to Lamont. 

 

 

Figure 6.  Core processing photos: (a) GeoTek core logger (here going through calibration with water-filled liner) and (b) a split core (from site 162_02, through outer-shelf channel-fill sediments: clay with sand lenses).

 

      Short gravity cores were extracted to preserve as much stratigraphic context as possible.  Often the available core consisted only of a ~10-15 cm plug in the nose cone/core catcher, with a roughly equal amount of material in the liner.  In some cases, we were able to push the entire section into the liner with the bottom of a plastic cup, and to preserve its integrity that way.  Where that was not possible, we were at some other times able to extrude the section intact into a split liner, then close it with duck tape.  Where the core section could not be kept intact, separate samples were bagged according to their depth in the core.  We also kept all gravity cores and other bagged samples refrigerated, then transported them in the cold van to Lamont for initial processing along with the vibracores.

 

Multibeam Mapping

      We made the best use of our 12 hours/day of non-coring time, after shifting to 12-hour operations, by conducting a multibeam bathymetry and backscatter survey with the Knorr’s 12 kHz SeaBeam system.  Although the acoustic frequency is too low to be optimal for continental shelf water depths, the system still provided useful data to augment the available multibeam coverage.  We designed track lines to extend the outer shelf multibeam coverage landward, in particular covering areas that included CHIRP seismic coverage but which had not previously been covered by multibeam (Fig. 1).

 

Stratigraphic Context for Samples

      Included with our list of sample sites (Appendix, last column) is a preliminary attempt to place each sample in stratigraphic context.  This is particularly critical for the outer shelf and shelf edge wedge samples, where we were unable to obtain anything resembling continuous sections.  Instead, we have a number of spot samples at various locations within the stratigraphy of each wedge.

 

      Figure 7 displays a CHIRP seismic section through a portion of the outer-shelf wedge (OSW), which is the older of the two wedges.  This profile also demonstrates the deep erosional swales in the modern bathymetry that provide our best windows for sampling the OSW with

 

 

Figure 7.  CHIRP seismic data through part of the outer shelf wedge, demonstrating stratigraphic identifications used for samples (see Appendix).  Vertical scale assumes water velocity (1500 m/s).  See Fig. 4 for location.

 

shallow coring.  The OSW is divided into a stratified lower section and a largely transparent upper section; the boundary is a highly erose, enigmatic, and non-reflective horizon (E).  We further partition the stratified section into four parts, three of which are observed on Figure 7: OSW_A, the oldest unit of the OSW which lies between the R and S horizons; OSW_B, which lies between reflector S and w1, an internal horizon which is one of only two that we have been able to trace across the whole of the mapped portion of the OSW; and OSW_C, which lies between w1 and E.  Another section, OSW-D, is observed only in a very limited area, and appears largely to have been physically replaced by the transparent unit over most of the coverage through unknown processes.  We further divide the transparent unit into upper (OSW_UT) and lower (OSW_LT) parts, although there is no clear boundary separating the two.  Samples identified as OSW_LT are all within 5 ms of  the “E” horizon.  Unfortunately, due to a navigational error in picking the site, we failed to obtain a sample in the OSW_A section accessible at the base of the deepest erosional swale.  Locations where we might have penetrated OSW_D appeared to have too much sand on top of them.  However, we were able to obtain numerous cores and plugs, plus a variety of scrapings, from the OSW_B, OSW_C, OSW_LT and OSW_UT sections.

 

      Elements of the younger shelf edge wedge (SEW) are displayed in Figure 8.  This wedge lies at the continental shelf edge, which is just off the image.  Wedge strata are generally truncated at the seafloor by erosion.  We distinguish four SEW sub-sections (SEW_A through SEW_D) separated by high amplitude reflectors S1-3.  We obtained short cores from all sections except SEW_B, although scrapings were obtained from each.

 

 

Figure 8.  CHIRP seismic data through an eroded portion of the shelf edge wedge, demonstrating stratigraphic identifications used for sample description (see Appendix).  Vertical scale assumes water velocity (1500 m/s).  Gravity core locations are also indicated with vertical lines (black = plug core, blue = scraping).  See Fig. 4 for location.

 

      We obtained just one vibracore within channel-fill sediments on the outer shelf (Figure 9), but it was a very critical one.  This core penetrated through a thin surface layer of sand into a muddy unit interpreted by Nordfjord et al. (2006) as “central bay mud” of an estuarine fill sequence.  The boundary between the sand and mud appears to be Nordfjord’s seismic horizon B3, which separates the central bay mud unit from what she interpreted as estuary mouth sands.  These units have not been previously sampled, and this core may provide a strong  corroboration of Nordfjord et al.’s interpretation of the channel fill stratigraphy.

 

 

Figure 9.  CHIRP seismic profile across an eroded portion of an outer-shelf channel.  Vibracore location 162_02 is the only KN190 sample from the fill strata of these channels.  Yellow dot indicates approximate depth of penetration.  Vertical scale assumes water velocity (1500 m/s).  See Fig. 4 for location.

 

      Figure 10 displays a CHIRP seismic profile across a pair of mid-shelf channels within the Barnegat Corridor, first reported by Duncan in her 2001 dissertation.  These channel fill units are complexly stratified, with evident cut-and-fill morphology.  They prominently differ from the internal stratigraphy of the outer shelf channels in the predominance of finely-stratified layering.  Such stratification is present in the outer shelf channel only in a very thin unit at the base of the “central bay mud” (see, for example, Fig. 9).  These observed seismic stratigraphic differences are undoubtedly very important, related in some way to variation in environmental conditions/sediment-type availability at the respective times of deposition.  Sedimentological analysis of samples collected during KN190 should help illuminate those conditions.  We cored this paired channel system in 5 locations (Fig. 10).  Core S19 was our deepest penetration (5.8 m). S19 may actually have sampled channel fill material entirely, as it is unlikely that we would have penetrated so deeply into underlying Pleistocene strata.  (Note:  It is possible that S19 is mis-navigated slightly toward the NE; a layback correction may not have been applied.  These data were collected in 1999 and we need to check our records.). 

 

 

Figure 10.  CHIRP seismic line across a paired channel system along the Barnegat Corridor.  Horizon “C” is the base of the channel.  Vibracore locations are indicated by vertical lines, with yellow dots indicating approximate depth of penetration.  Vertical scale assumes water velocity (1500 m/s).  See Fig. 5 for location.

 

      Two sand ridges were cored within the Barnegat Corridor (Figures 11 and 12).  These sand ridges are the topic of a recently-submitted manuscript by Goff and Duncan.  In seismic section, the ridges often exhibit seaward-dipping reflectors.  Mostly, these are very subtle in the CHIRP seismic data (e.g., Figure 12), but in Figure 11 (identified as “Ridge D” in the Goff and Duncan manuscript), there is one more prominent reflector.  Core S1 clearly penetrated this horizon, which appears to separate well-sorted medium sand above from a muddier, finer sand below, possibly with some shell hash at the interface (the core has not been split yet, so this description is tentative).  The cores across both ridges should sample well the evident SW age progression of the ridge sediments. 

 

 

Figure 11.  CHIRP seismic profile across Ridge “D” within the Barnegat Corridor.  Horizon “T” is the basal horizon for the Holocene sands, and is interpreted as the Holocene transgressive ravinement surface.  A prominent, dipping reflector is also identified.  Vibracore locations are indicated by vertical lines, with yellow dots indicating approximate depths of penetration.  Vertical scale assumes water velocity (1500 m/s).  See Fig. 5 for location.

 

 

Figure 12.  CHIRP seismic profile across Ridge “I” within the Barnegat Corridor.  Horizon “T” is the basal horizon for the Holocene sands, and is interpreted as the transgressive ravinement surface.  Several subtle, dipping reflectors are also identified.  Vibracore locations are indicated by vertical lines, with yellow dots indicating approximate depths of penetration.  Vertical scale assumes water velocity (1500 m/s).  See Fig. 5 for location.

 

 

Student Participation/Outreach

      One of the truly rewarding aspects about KN190 was that we had tremendous student participation (Fig. 13).  These included:

 

 

Figure 13. KN190 science party on the transit home with their brand-new Knorr hats.  Standing (L to R): Susan Holt, Stanley Stackhouse, Beth Christensen, Jamie Austin, Brandon Dugan, Darren Daly, Ron Steel, Monica Price, Alison Jones, Manasij Santra.  Seated (L to R): Dana Brown, John Goff, Amanda Uster.

 

(1) Two UT/DGS graduate students: Manasij Santra, a student of Ron Steel, who is helping to interpret some of the chirp data as part of his PhD research, and Stanley Stackhouse, a newly enrolled master’s student advised by Goff and Christensen who will work on the sedimentological analysis of these samples.

(2) Two undergraduates, Darren Daly and Amanda Uster, from Adelphi University, the home institution of Beth Christensen.  Adelphi is a predominantly undergraduate institution whose students do not typically have access to field research opportunities.

(3) One graduate student from Georgia Tech, Dana Brown, who is finishing up her Master’s thesis with Beth Christensen as her advisor.  Dana also works on an outreach program in Georgia called the “Biobus”, which brings scientific enrichment to underprivileged students.  Dana plans to incorporate her experience in our field work into the Biobus program.

(4) Two MATE (Marine Advanced Technology Education) undergraduate interns, Monica Price from Coastal Carolina University, and Allison Jones from San Jose State.  The MATE intern program endeavors to place highly-motivated students from institutions that do not generally have access to marine-based field programs at this level. 

(5) One graduate student at Rice University, Hugh Daigle, working with Brandon Dugan (who we subcontracted to operate an MSCL logger on the cores at sea).

 

      In addition, we also brought Susan Holt, a high school teacher from Phoenix who had earlier participated with Jamie Austin on a 2005 cruise offshore Sumatra.  Susan will post her photographs and movies on a web site for her students to access.  She is a tremendous high school science teacher who is eager to transfer her experience and excitement for science to her students. All of our students and our teacher were tremendously motivated and hard workers, and the group as a whole became very cohesive.  We expect that their experiences on this cruise will have a very positive impact on their chosen career paths. 

 

References

Duncan, C. S., 2001.  Late Quaternary Stratigraphy and Seafloor Morphology of the New Jersey Continental Shelf.  PhD. Thesis, University of Texas, 222 pp.

Duncan, C. S., Goff, J. A., Austin, J. A., Fulthorpe C. S., 2000.  Tracking the last sea level cycle: seafloor morphology and shallow stratigraphy of the latest Quaternary New Jersey middle continental shelf. Mar. Geol. 170, 395-421.

Goff, J. A., and C. S. Duncan, Reexamination of sand ridges on the middle and outer New Jersey shelf based on combined analysis of multibeam bathymetry and backscatter, seafloor grab samples and chirp seismic data. submitted to Sediementology.

Goff, J. A., Swift, D. J. P., Duncan, C. S., Mayer, L. A., Hughes-Clarke, J., 1999.  High resolution swath sonar investigation of sand ridge, dune and ribbon morphology in the offshore environment of the New Jersey Margin. Mar. Geol. 161, 309-339.

Goff, J. A., Kraft, B. J., Mayer, L. A., Schock, S. G., Sommerfield, C. K., Olson, H. C., Gulick, S. P. S., Nordfjord, S., 2004.  Seabed characterization on the New Jersey middle and outer shelf: Correlability and spatial variability of seafloor sediment properties. Mar. Geol. 209, 147-172.

Goff, J. A., Austin, J. A. Jr., Gulick, S., Nordfjord, S., Christensen, B., Sommerfield, C., Olson, H., Alexander, C., 2005. Recent and modern marine erosion on the New Jersey outer shelf. Mar. Geol. 216, 275-296.

Gulick, S. P. S., Goff, J. A., Austin, J. A. Jr., Alexander, C. R. Jr., Nordfjord, S., Fulthorpe, C. S., 2005. Basal inflection-controlled shelf-edge wedges off New Jersey track sea-level fall. Geology 33, 429-432.

Nordfjord, S., 2005. Late Quaternary Geologic History of New Jersey Middle and Outer Continental Shelf, PhD. Thesis, University of Texas, 202 pp.

Nordfjord, S., Goff, J. A., Austin, J. A. Jr., Sommerfield, C. K., 2005.  Seismic geomorphology of buried channel systems on New Jersey shelf: assessing past environmental conditions.  Mar. Geol. 214, 339-364.

Nordfjord, S., Goff, J. A., Austin, J. A. Jr., S. P. S. Gulick, S. P. S., 2006. Seismic facies of incised valley-fills, New Jersey continental shelf: Implications for erosion and preservation processes acting during late Pleistocene/Holocene transgression. J. Sed. Res. 76, 1284-1303.

 


 

Appendix: Complete table of coring attempts, and summary of stratigraphic units sampled

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Site

Hole

Device

Lat deg

Lat min

Lon deg

Lon min

Depth, m

Best

Sample

Length,

cm

Stratigraphy

06_01

A

G

39

9.49222

-72

57.2628

86

P

23

OSW_C

06_01

B

G

39

9.49222

-72

57.2628

86

P

19.5

OSW_C

06_01

C

G

39

9.49222

-72

57.2628

86

S

0

OSW_C

06_02

A

G

39

9.69059

-72

57.20063

82

N

0

OSW_C

06_02

B

G

39

9.69059

-72

57.20063

82

N

0

OSW_C

06_02

C

G

39

9.69059

-72

57.20063

82

N

0

OSW_C

06_03

A

G

39

10.05867

-72

57.02706

82

S

0

OSW_B

06_03

B

G

39

10.05867

-72

57.02706

82

S

0

OSW_B

06_04

A

G

39

8.70723

-72

57.75724

85

N

0

OSW_C

06_04

B

G

39

8.70723

-72

57.75724

85

N

0

OSW_C

06_05

A

G

39

7.62706

-72

58.64433

82

N

0

OSW_C

06_05

B

G

39

7.62706

-72

58.64433

82

N

0

OSW_C

06_06

A

G

39

7.22651

-72

58.93711

80

N

0

OSW_UT

06_06

B

G

39

7.22651

-72

58.93711

80

N

0

OSW_UT

06_06

C

G

39

7.22651

-72

58.93711

80

N

0

OSW_UT

06_07

A

V

39

5.347

-73

0.33511

80

N

0

SB

06_07

B

G

39

5.35135

-73

0.31009

82

S

0

SB

11_01

A

G

39

2.49167

-73

2.88197

84

S

0

OSW_LT

11_01

B

G

39

2.49167

-73

2.88197

84

P

15

OSW_LT

11_01

C

G

39

2.49167

-73

2.88197

84

P

15

OSW_LT

30_01

A

G

39

11.51166

-72

52.59799

85

N

0

OSW_D

30_01

B

G

39

11.51166

-72

52.59799

85

N

0

OSW_D

47_02

A

V

39

17.04288

-72

56.36784

71

N

0

CFO

125_01

A

V

39

21.47117

-72

47.50486

78

S

0

CFO

162_01

A

V

39

23.22704

-72

52.97824

70

N

0

CFO

162_02

A

V

39

24.04236

-72

52.99938

73

C

279

CFO

162_02

B

V

39

24.04156

-72

52.99875

73

C

211

CFO

205_01

A

G

39

1.90647

-73

3.07694

82

N

0

OSW_LT

205_01

B

G

39

1.90647

-73

3.07694

82

N

0

OSW_LT

206_01

A

G

39

1.70888

-73

3.59595

86

N

0

OSW_LT

206_01

B

G

39

1.70888

-73

3.59595

86

N

0

OSW_LT

206_01

C

G

39

1.70888

-73

3.59595

86

N

0

OSW_LT

206_02

A

V

39

1.72856

-73

5.66257

86

P

45

OSW_B

206_02

B

G

39

1.69957

-73

5.66014

87

P

15

OSW_B

206_02

C

G

39

1.69957

-73

5.66014

87

P

19

OSW_B

206_03

A

V

39

1.71487

-73

4.71867

81

S

0

OSW_C

206_03

B

G

39

1.70823

-73

4.73973

81

P

15

OSW_C

207_01

A

V

39

1.4614

-73

2.2411

77

C

180

OSW_UT

207_01

B

V

39

1.47663

-73

2.2242

77

P

22

OSW_UT

207_03

A

V

39

1.53579

-73

5.80843

89

P

40

OSW_B

207_03

B

G

39

1.49016

-73

5.75332

89

P

15

OSW_B

211_01

A

G

39

0.6298

-73

5.40789

85

P

16

OSW_C

211_01

B

G

39

0.6298

-73

5.40789

85

N

0

OSW_C

211_01

C

G

39

0.6298

-73

5.40789

85

S

0

OSW_C

215_01

A

V

38

59.76248

-73

0.19231

81

S

0

CFO

215_02

A

V

38

59.75797

-73

0.98874

80

S

0

?

215_03

A

V

38

59.75933

-73

5.71215

79

C

135

OSW_UT

312_01

A

G

39

1.69444

-73

4.06651

86

S

0

OSW_C

312_01

B

G

39

1.69444

-73

4.06651

86

S

0

OSW_C

320_01

A

G

39

2.47598

-73

2.98291

82

S

0

OSW_LT

322_01

A

G

39

2.74518

-73

2.67615

83

N

0

OSW_LT

322_01

B

G

39

2.74518

-73

2.67615

83

S

0

OSW_LT

903_01

A

V

39

7.97623

-73

1.58776

71

S

0

SR "N"

905_04

A

G

39

4.03376

-72

57.84755

92

P

16.5

OSW_LT

905_04

B

G

39

4.03376

-72

57.84755

92

S

0

OSW_LT

905_04

C

G

39

4.03376

-72

57.84755

92

P

12

OSW_LT

907_01

A

G

39

9.82715

-72

43.10475

127

N

0

SEW_C

907_01

A

G

39

9.82715

-72

43.10475

127

N

0

SEW_C

907_02

A

G

39

9.93012

-72

43.27962

126

N

0

SEW_C

907_03

A

G

39

10.0479

-72

43.51541

127

S

0

SEW_C

907_03

B

G

39

10.0479

-72

43.51541

127

P

25

SEW_C

907_03

C

G

39

10.0479

-72

43.51541

127

N

0

SEW_C

907_04

A

G

39

10.17557

-72

43.73204

126

N

0

SEW_B

907_04

B

G

39

10.17557

-72

43.73204

126

N

0

SEW_B

907_05

A

G

39

10.27102

-72

43.8925

127

S

0

SEW_B

907_05

B

G

39

10.27102

-72

43.8925

127

N

0

SEW_B

907_05

C

G

39

10.27102

-72

43.8925

127

S

0

SEW_B

907_06

A

G

39

10.42315

-72

44.16559

125

S

0

SEW_B

907_06

B

G

39

10.42315

-72

44.16559

125

S

0

SEW_B

907_07

A

G

39

10.64199

-72

44.56333

124

N

0

SEW_B

907_07

B

G

39

10.64199

-72

44.56333

124

N

0

SEW_B

907_07

C

G

39

10.64199

-72

44.56333

124

S

0

SEW_B

907_08

A

G

39

11.02399

-72

45.233

118

N

0

SEW_B

907_08

B

G

39

11.02399

-72

45.233

118

N

0

SEW_B

907_09

A

G

39

11.59382

-72

46.26746

107

S

0

SEW_A

907_09

B

G

39

11.59382

-72

46.26746

107

S

0

SEW_A

907_10

A

G

39

11.83585

-72

46.70907

99

S

0

SEW_A

907_10

B

G

39

11.83585

-72

46.70907

99

S

0

SEW_A

907_11

A

G

39

12.56035

-72

48.00217

90

N

0

OSW_UT

907_11

B

G

39

12.56035

-72

48.00217

90

N

0

OSW_UT

907_12

A

G

39

12.98468

-72

48.76744

87

N

0

OSW_UT

907_12

B

G

39

12.98468

-72

48.76744

87

N

0

OSW_UT

907_13

A

G

39

13.44803

-72

49.60771

87

S

0

OSW_UT

907_13

B

G

39

13.44803

-72

49.60771

87

S

0

OSW_UT

907_14

A

G

39

13.78809

-72

50.2239

86

N

0

OSW_LT

907_15

A

G

39

13.9829

-72

50.5662

87

N

0

OSW_C

907_16

A

G

39

14.3325

-72

51.21065

85

N

0

OSW_C

907_16

B

G

39

14.3325

-72

51.21065

85

N

0

OSW_C

907_17

A

G

39

14.55757

-72

51.59178

84

N

0

OSW_C

907_17

B

G

39

14.55757

-72

51.59178

84

N

0

OSW_C

907_18

A

G

39

15.18952

-72

52.72977

81

S

0

OSV

907_19

A

G

39

15.42576

-72

53.15625

80

N

0

CFO

907_20

A

V

39

17.01689

-72

56.07321

72

N

0

OSV

907_20

B

V

39

17.01707

-72

56.073

72

S

0

OSV

909_01

A

G

39

16.42235

-72

44.84299

102

N

0

SEW_A

909_01

B

G

39

16.42235

-72

44.84299

102

S

0

SEW_A

909_02

A

G

39

15.35957

-72

42.93427

119

P

35

SEW_A

909_02

B

G

39

15.35957

-72

42.93427

119

P

20.5

SEW_A

909_02

C

G

39

15.35957

-72

42.93427

119

N

0

SEW_A

909_03

A

G

39

14.31822

-72

41.06228

129

P

14

SEW_A

909_03

B

G

39

14.31822

-72

41.06228

129

S

0

SEW_A

909_03

C

G

39

14.31822

-72

41.06228

129

P

12

SEW_A

909_04

A

G

39

13.54963

-72

39.68217

131

N

0

SEW_B

909_04

B

G

39

13.54963

-72

39.68217

131

S

0

SEW_B

909_04

C

G

39

13.54963

-72

39.68217

131

S

0

SEW_B

909_05

A

G

39

13.26044

-72

39.16001

131

S

0

SEW_C

909_05

B

G

39

13.26044

-72

39.16001

131

N

0

SEW_C

909_05

C

G

39

13.26044

-72

39.16001

131

P

21

SEW_C

909_06

A

G

39

12.85483

-72

38.43462

136

N

0

SEW_C

909_06

B

G

39

12.85483

-72

38.43462

136

N

0

SEW_C

909_07

A

G

39

12.52291

-72

37.85251

141

S

0

SEW_C

909_07

B

G

39

12.52291

-72

37.85251

141

S

0

SEW_C

909_07

C

G

39

12.52291

-72

37.85251

141

S

0

SEW_C

909_08

A

G

39

12.36639

-72

37.57198

143

P

25

SEW_C

909_08

B

G

39

12.36639

-72

37.57198

143

P

17

SEW_C

909_08

C

G

39

12.36639

-72

37.57198

143

S

0

SEW_C

909_09

A

G

39

12.1606

-72

37.18148

145

S

0

SEW_D

909_09

B

G

39

12.1606

-72

37.18148

145

P

21

SEW_D

909_09

C

G

39

12.1606

-72

37.18148

145

P

16

SEW_D

909_10

A

G

39

11.90335

-72

36.73632

143

C

56

SEW_D

909_10

B

G

39

11.90335

-72

36.73632

143

P

31

SEW_D

909_10

C

G

39

11.90335

-72

36.73632

143

P

35

SEW_D

S1

A

V

39

39.9353

-73

40.66522

28

C

460

SR "D"

S2

A

V

39

39.90501

-73

40.64505

27

C

140

SR "D"

S3

A

V

39

39.78616

-73

40.38294

28

P

28

SR "D"

S3

B

V

39

39.78011

-73

40.38442

30

C

60

SR "D"

S4

A

V

39

36.50598

-73

34.68365

35

C

285

CFM

S5

A

V

39

36.41426

-73

34.54657

35

C

75

CFM

S6

A

V

39

36.182

-73

34.20948

35

C

337

CFM

S7

A

V

39

32.90737

-73

26.7778

32

P

30

SR "I"

S8

A

V

39

32.81355

-73

26.58437

32

C

170

SR "I"

S9

A

V

39

33.08269

-73

27.09022

32

C

60

SR "I"

S10

A

V

39

32.50322

-73

25.94226

33

C

151

SR "I"

S11

A

V

39

29.94299

-73

22.00345

36

C

210

CFM

S12

A

V

39

29.6086

-73

21.87386

36

S

0

CFM

S12

B

V

39

29.61217

-73

21.87396

36

P

25

CFM

S14

A

V

39

28.28229

-73

19.51019

34

S

0

MSW

S14

B

V

39

28.2835

-73

19.50904

34

P

26

MSW

S15

A

V

39

27.34927

-73

17.79761

34

S

0

MSW

S17

A

V

39

40.00266

-73

40.76583

30

S

0

SR "D"

S17

B

V

39

39.99521

-73

40.76075

30

P

40

SR "D"

S18

A

V

39

39.68195

-73

40.38826

31

C

66

SR "D"

S19

A

V

39

36.56348

-73

34.84108

35

C

582

CFM

S20

A

V

39

36.36759

-73

34.47771

35

C

240

CFM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sum:

4406.5

 

 

Device: G = Gravity Core; V = Vibracore

Best sample (in order): C = core; P = plug (< 50 cm); S = scrapings; N = nothing.

 

 

# Best-Sample Holes

Stratigraphic Units

C + P

S

MSW = Mid Shelf Wedge

1

2

SR = Sand Ridge

10

1

SB = Sand? Body on outer-shelf wedge

0

1

CFM = Channel Fill Middle Shelf (Barnegat Corridor)

7

1

CFO = Channel Fill Outer Shelf

2

2

OSV = Outer Shelf Veneer (> R and < T, shoreward of R shoulder)

0

2

OSW = Outer Shelf Wedge

 

 

      A = Between R and S

0

0

      B = Between R and w1

5

2

      C = Between w1 and E

4

5

      D = Upper laminated unit, mostly supplanted by transparent unit

0

0

      LT = Lower transparent unit = proximal to E

4

4

      UT = Upper transparent unit

3

2

SEW = Shelf Edge Wedge

 

 

      A = from W or R to s1

4

6

      B = from s1 to s2

0

7

      C = from s2 to s3

4

6

      D = above s3

5

1

Totals

49

42